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Style Guide

Styling Guidelines for Academic Writing at Eternity

Citing Sources - Personal Communication

Interviews

Personal Communication


 

General Format for Personal Communication

Note 1. First and Last name of the Person, type of communication, date of communication
Bibliography None required

Interviews

Tips: Unpublished interviews (including those you have conducted yourself) should usually be cited only in notes. Begin the note with the names of the person interviewed and the interviewer; also include the place and date of the interview (if known) and the location of any recordings or transcripts (if available). 

If you cannot reveal the name of the person interviewed, cite it in a form appropriate to the context. Explain the absence of the name in a note or a preface. 

Cite a published interview according to the rules for that type of publication, treating the interviewee as the author. 

Note 1. David Shields, interview by author, Seattle, July 22, 2016.
Bibliography Not required.
Note 2. Interview with a home health aide, July 31, 2017. 

Personal Communication

Tips: Cite conversations, letters, email or text messages, and direct or private messages shared through social media only in notes. The key elements are the name of the other person, the type of communication, and the date of the communication. 

Note 1. Roland J. Zuckerman, email message to author, June 1, 2017. 
Bibliography Not Required

 

Interviews

Personal Communication


 

General Format for Personal Communication

Reference List LastName, FirstName of the person interviewed. Year. Name of the Interviewer. Place of interview. Specific Day of interview.
Parenthetical Citation (Name of person interviewed Year)

Interviews

Tips: To cite an unpublished interviews (including those you have conducted yourself), begin a reference list entry with the names of the person interviewed, followed by the date and the name of the interviewer; also include the place and specific day of the interview (if known) and the location of any recordings or transcripts (if available).

If you cannot reveal the name of the person interviewed, cite it in a form appropriate to the context. Explain the absence of the name in a note or a preface.

Cite a published interview according to the rules for that type of publication, treating the interviewee as the author.

Reference List Shields, David. 2016. Interview by author. Seattle. July 22, 2016.
Parenthetical Citation (Shields 2016)
Reference List Spock, Benjamin. 1974. Interview by Milton J. E. Sen. November 20, 1974. Interview 67A, transcript, Senn Oral History Collection, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.
Parenthetical Citation (Spock 1974)
Reference List Snowden, Edward. 2015. "Edward Snowden Explains How to Reclaim Your Privacy." Interview by Micah Lee. The Intercept, November 12, 2015. https://theintercept.com/2015/11/12/edward-snowden-explain-how-to-reclaim-your-privacy/.
Parenthetical Citation (Snowden 2015)

Personal Communication

Tips: Cite conversations, letters, email or text messages, and direct or private messages shared through social media only in parenthetical citations. The key elements are the name of the other person, the type of communication, and the date of the communication. In many cases you may be able to include some of all of this information in the text.

Reference List Not Required
Parenthetical Citation (Roland J. Zuckerman, email message to author, June 1, 2017)
Reference List Not Required
Parenthetical Citation (Emma Fenton to author, Instagram direct message, March 25, 2017)