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Style Guide

Styling Guidelines for Academic Writing at Eternity

Citing Sources - Websites, Blogs & Social Media

Website Content

Blog Posts

Social Media: Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, etc...


 

General Format for Websites and Blogs

Note 1. Firstname Lastname, "Title of Web Page," Name of Website, Publishing Organization, publication or revision date if available, access date if no other date is available, URL.
Bibliography Lastname, Firstname. "Title of Web Page." Name of Website. Publishing Organization, publication or revision date if available. Access date if no other date is available. URL.

Website Content

Tips: It can sometimes be difficult to find out who the author of a website is. Remember that an author can be a corporation or group, not only a specific person. Author information can sometimes be found under an "About" section on a website. If there is no known author, start the citation with the title of the webpage instead. 

The best date to use for a website is the date that the content was last updated. Otherwise, look for copyright or original publication date. Unfortunately, this information may not be provided or may be hard to find. Date information can often be found on the bottom of the page of a website. If no date of publication can be found, you may use an access date. 

Note 1. "Religion & Public Life," Pew Research Center, accessed January 26, 2021, https://www.pewforum.org.
Bibliography "Religion & Public Life." Pew Research Center. Accessed January 26, 2021. https://www.pewforum.org.
Note 1. "Privacy Policy," Privacy & Terms, Google, last modified March 25, 2016, http://www.google.com/policies/privacy/.
Bibliography Google. "Privacy Policy." Privacy & Terms. Last modified March 25, 2016. http://www.google.com/policies/privacy/.

Blog Posts

Tip: Blog posts are similar to articles in magazines and newspapers and can be cited in much the same way. Put the title of the post in quotation marks and the title of the blog in italics (you can indicate "blog" in parentheses if it is not clear from the title). If the blog is part of a larger publication such as a newspaper, give the name of the publication after the title of the blog. 

Notes 1. Sharon Jayson, "Is Selfie Culture Making Our Kids Selfish?," Well (blog), New York Times, June 23, 2016, http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2016/06/23/is-selfie-culture-making-our-kids-selfish/.
Bibliography Jayson, Sharon. "Is Selfie Culture Making Our Kids Selfish?." Well (blog). New York Times, June 23, 2016, http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2016/06/23/is-selfie-culture-making-our-kids-selfish/.
Notes 1. Frederic Brussat, "Beyond Ideas of Wrongdoing and Rightdoing," Civility & Spirituality (blog), December 11, 2014, http://www.spiritualityand practice.com/blogs/posts/civility-spirituality/301/beyond-ideas-of-wrongdoing-and-rightgoing.
Bibliography Brussat, Frederic. "Beyond Ideas of Wrongdoing and Rightdoing." Civility & Spirituality (blog). December 11, 2014. http://www.spiritualityand practice.com/blogs/posts/civility-spirituality/301/beyond-ideas-of-wrongdoing-and-rightgoing.

Social Media, Twitter

Tips: Social media content is normally cited in the text or notes but not in the bibliography. To cite direct messages and other personal or private content, follow the guidelines for citing personal communications. 

Include the following elements: 

  • the author of the post. List a screen name in addition to the name of the person or group on the account, if known.
  • in place of a title, the text of the post. Quote up to the first 160 characters. 
  • the type of post. 
  • the date, including month, day, and year. 
  • a URL

Items shared on social media tend to disappear; always keep a screenshot of whatever you cite in case you need to refer to it later. 

General Format Note 1. Firstname Lastname (Screen name), "Post text", social media service, indication of format/medium, publication date, time stamp, URL. 
Note 1. Sohaib Athar (@ReallyVirtual), "Helicopter hovering above Abbottad at 1AM is a rare event," Twitter, January 4, 2013, https://twitter.com/reallyvirtual/status/64780730286358528?lang=en.
Bibliography No need for a bibliographic entry. 
Notes 2.  Junot Diaz, "Always surprises my students when I tell them that the 'real' medieval was more diverse than the fake ones most of us consume," Facebook, February 24, 2016, https://www.facebook.com/junotdiaz.writer/posts/972495572815454.
Notes 3. Pete Souza (@petesouza), "President Obama bids farewell to President Xi of China at the conclusion of the Nuclear Security Summit," Instagram photo, April 1, 2016, https//www.instagram.com/p/BDrmfXTtNCt/.

Website Content

Blog Posts

Social Media: Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, etc...


General Format for Websites and Blogs

Reference List Author's Name. Publication or Revision Year. "Title of the Page." Title of the Site. Exact Month and day if relevant. URL.
Parenthetical Citation (Author Year Published)

Website Content

Tips: It can sometimes be difficult to find out who the author of a website is. Remember that an author can be a corporation or group, not only a specific person. Author information can sometimes be found under an "About" section on a website. If there is no known author, start the citation with the title of the webpage instead. 

The best date to use for a website is the date that the content was last updated. Otherwise, look for copyright or original publication date. Unfortunately, this information may not be provided or may be hard to find. Date information can often be found on the bottom of the page of a website. If no date of publication can be found, you may use an access date.

Reference List Higgins, Susan B. 2016. "High School Students Explore Key Issues Facing American Indian Communities." News at Princeton, Princeton University, June 23, 2016. https://www.princeton.edu/main/news/archive/S46/66/02A46/.
Parenthetical Citation (Higgins 2016)

Blog Posts

Tip: Blog posts are similar to articles in magazines and newspapers and can be cited in much the same way. Put the title of the post in quotation marks and the title of the blog in italics (you can indicate "blog" in parentheses if it is not clear from the title). If the blog is part of a larger publication such as a newspaper, give the name of the publication after the title of the blog. 

Reference List Germano, William. 2017. "Futurist Shock." Lingua Franca (blog). Chronicle of Higher Education, February 15, 2017, http://www.chronicle.com/blogs/linguafranca/2017/02/15/futurist-shock/.
Parenthetical Citation (Germano 2017)

Social Media, Twitter

Tips: Social media content is normally cited in the text or in parenthetical citations and not in the reference list. To cite direct messages and other personal or private content, follow the guidelines for citing personal communications. 

Include the following elements: 

  • the author of the post. List a screen name in addition to the name of the person or group on the account, if known.
  • in place of a title, the text of the post. Quote up to the first 160 characters. 
  • the type of post. 
  • the date, including month, day, and year. 
  • a URL

Items shared on social media tend to disappear; always keep a screenshot of whatever you cite in case you need to refer to it later. 

General Format Note 1. Firstname Lastname (Screen name), "Post text", social media service, indication of format/medium, publication date, time stamp, URL. 
Note 1. Sohaib Athar (@ReallyVirtual), "Helicopter hovering above Abbottad at 1AM is a rare event," Twitter, January 4, 2013, https://twitter.com/reallyvirtual/status/64780730286358528?lang=en.
Bibliography No need for a bibliographic entry. 
Notes 2.  Junot Diaz, "Always surprises my students when I tell them that the 'real' medieval was more diverse than the fake ones most of us consume," Facebook, February 24, 2016, https://www.facebook.com/junotdiaz.writer/posts/972495572815454.
Notes 3. Pete Souza (@petesouza), "President Obama bids farewell to President Xi of China at the conclusion of the Nuclear Security Summit," Instagram photo, April 1, 2016, https//www.instagram.com/p/BDrmfXTtNCt/.
Reference List  
Parenthetical Citation