In notes-style citations, you signal that you have used a source by placing a superscript number at the end of the sentence in which you quote it or refer to it:
By 1911, according to one expert, an Amazon was "any woman rebel--which, to a lot of people, meant any girl who left home and went to college."¹
You then cite the source of that quotation in a correspondingly numbered note that provides information about the source (author, title, and facts of publication) plus relevant page numbers. Notes are placed at the bottom of the page (called footnotes) or in a list collected at the end of your paper or the end of a chapter (called endnotes). All notes have the same general form:
1. Jill Lepore, The Secret History of Wonder Woman (New York: Vintage Books, 2015), 17.
If you cite the same text again, you can shorten subsequent notes:
2. Lepore, Wonder Woman, 28-29.
You will also list sources at the end of the paper in a bibliography. That list normally includes every source you cited in a note and sometimes others you consulted but did not cite. Each bibliography entry includes the same information contained in a full note, but in a slightly different form:
Lepore, Jill. The Secret History of Wonder Woman. New York: Vintage Books, 2015.
Although sources and their citations come in almost endless variety, you are likely to use only a few kinds. While you may need to look up details to cite some unusual sources, you can easily learn the basic patterns for the few kinds you will use most often.
Book - Single Author
|Note||##. Author's First and Last Names, Title of Book: Subtitle of Book (Place of Publication: Publisher's Name, Date of Publication), pp.|
|1. Angela Duckworth, Grit: The Power of Passion and Perseverance (New York: Scribner, 2016), 82.|
|Bibliography||Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher's Name, Date of Publication.|
|Duckworth, Angela. Grit: The Power of Passion and Perseverance. New York: Scribner, 2016.|
|Note||##. Author's First and Last Names, "Title of Article: Subtitle of Article," Title of Journal Volume Number, Issue Number (Date of Publication): pp, URL|
|9. Ben Mercer, "Specters of Fascism: The Rhetoric of Historical Analogy in 1968," Journal of Modern History 88, no.1 (March 2016): 98, https://doi.org/10.1086/685998.|
|Bibliography||Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. "Title of Article: Subtitle of Article." Title of Journal Volume Number, Issue Number (Date of Publication): pp-pp. URL.|
|Mercer, Ben. "specters of Fascism: The Rhetoric of Historical Analogy in 1968." Journal of Modern History 88, no.1 (March 2016): 96-129. https://doi.org/10.1086/685998.|
(Sources: Turabian Guide website; A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses and Dissertations, 9th ed.)
Turabian, Kate L. 2020. MANUAL for WRITERS of RESEARCH PAPERS, THESES, and DISSERTATIONS : Chicago Style for Students And Researchers. S.L.: Univ Of Chicago Press.