Skip to Main Content

Writing Tutorials



For every summary, paraphrase, or quotation you use, you are required to cite its bibliographic data using the Chicago Style which provides two methods; from which you choose (or ask your professor) which method to use. The two methods available are:
The Notes-Biliography Method or The Author-Date Method.

The Chicago Style and the two methods are explained in detail in the Eternity Style Guide.

When you write an essay that refers to any material other than your own ideas or common knowledge, you are required to use a parenthetical citation (for the Author-Date Method) or a footnote or endnote (for the Notes-Biliography Method) to cite your sources within the text of your essay as well as in a compiled bibliography at the end of the paper that includes the full list of all of your sources in alphabetical order.


“Ethics, copyright laws, and courtesy to readers require authors to identify the sources of direct quotation or paraphrases and of any facts or opinions not generally known or easily checked” (The University of Chicago 2017, 14.1).

Including citations in your essay is important for avoiding plagiarism, building author credibility, and enabling discourse.

What is a Citation? - Chicago-Style

Basic Rules for Creating Reference Entries for your Bibliography:

  • Each source cited within the text must show up as an entry in the bibliography at the end of the paper
  • AUTHOR: Invert authors' names—last name followed by first name—and alphabetize reference list entries by the last name of the first author of each work.

    Enns, Peter

  • TITLE: Use headline-style capitalization for titles. (Also known as title case - the main words are capitalized and the less important words are lowercase.)

    A People's History of the World: From the Stone Age to the New Millenium

  • TITLE: Italicize titles of longer works such as books and journals.
  • TITLE: Put quotation marks around the titles of shorter works such as journal srticles or essays in edited collections.

    The Psychology of Flying (Book Title)
    "Helicopters and Parenting in the Prevention of Flight Anxiety" (Journal Article Title)

  • When determining the appropriate formatting for a citation on the bibliography page, identify the source type (Is it a book? Is it a journal article? Is it an online article?) and then find the appropriate citation format on the Eternity Style Guide. Mirror the sample entry on your bibliography page, replacing the sample information with the relevant information from your source.
  • URL - DOI: For electronic journal articles and other web sources, you want to include a DOI (Digital Object Identifier, prefaced with the letters "doi" and a colon.) or a URL. When using a URL, look for a "stable" version where available.
  • PUBLICATION DATE: For electronic sources, no access date is required - unless you cannot determine the publication date. For a printed work, use the abbreviation "n.d." if you cannot determine the publication date.

Basic Rules for Creating and Using Parenthetical Citations - Chicago-Style Author-Date Method

  • Each time a source is used in the text, it must be cited in parentheses.
  • Parenthetical Citations consist of the author's last name, the publication date, and the page number of the source, when applicable.

    In Turkey, the Republican People's Party was a conglomerate of different political groups, including the urban middle class, the state bureaucracy, landowners, and army officers (Ahmad 1977, 1-2).

  • When an author's name appears in the text, the date of the work cited should follow.

    ***** or an image?

  • When a source has no identifiable author, cite it by its title, in shortened form (up to four keywords from the title in the parenthetical citation)

    ***** or an image?

  • When the same page(s) of the same source are cited more than once in a single paragraph, you need only cite the source (in full) after the last reference or at the end of the paragraph.

    ***** or an image?

  • When the same source but different page numbers are referenced in the same paragraph, include a full citation upon the first reference and provide only page numbers thereafter.

    ***** or an image?

Basic Rules for Creating and Using Footnotes or Endnotes - Chicago-Style Notes-Biliography Method

  • Each time a source is used in the text, it must be cited by note: footnote or endnote.
    Footnotes appear at the foot (bottom) of the page and are preferred.
    Endnotes appear at the end of the paper before the bibliography.
  • Note numbers should begin with "1" and follow consecutively. They are placed at the end of the clause or sentence to which they refer.
  • The note numbers are set as "superscript" numbers in the text.
  • A complete Note citation will correspond to the bibliography entry and are only slightly altered.

    1. Jodi Dean, Decomcracy and Other Neoliberal Fantasies: Communicative Capitalism and Left Politics (Durham: Duke University Press, 2009), 30.

    Dean, Jodi. Democracy and Other Neoliberal Fantasies: Communicative Capitalism and Politics. Durhame: Duke University Press, 2009.

Turabian Tip Sheets:


Parenthetical Citations